Was ist CAM?

Für CAM – Komplementäre und Alternative Medizin (Behandlungsmethoden) – gibt es verschiedene Definitionen, die üblicherweise benutzt werden. Generell umfasst der Begriff CAM Methoden, die entweder anstelle von Konventioneller Medizin (alternativ) oder ergänzend zu Konventioneller Medizin (komplementär) angewendet werden, wobei die Unterscheidung zwischen komplementär und alternativ nicht absolut ist, sondern durchaus kontextabhängig.

Insbesondere seit der Begriff 1998 vom National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine (NCCAM) eingeführt wurde als “a group of diverse medical and health care systems, practices, and products that are not presently considered to be part of conventional medicine”, wird CAM geradezu standardmäßig als Sammelbeziechnung benutzt.

CAM-Defintion der WHO

CAM refers to a broad set of health care practices that are not part of a country’s own tradition and not integrated into the dominant health care system.

CAM-Definition des NCCAM

“Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) is a broad domain of resources that encompasses health systems, modalities, and practices and their accompanying theories and beliefs, other than those intrinsic to the dominant health system of a particular society or culture in a given historical period. CAM includes such resources perceived by their users as associated with positive health outcomes. Boundaries within CAM and between the CAM domain and the domain of the dominant system are not always sharp or fixed.”

CAM-Defintion des Cochrane Complementary Medicine Field

“Complementary medicine includes all such practices and ideas which are outside the domain of conventional medicine in several countries and defined by its users as preventing or treating illness, or promoting health and well being. These practices complement mainstream medicine by

  • contributing to a common whole,
  • satisfying a demand not met by conventional practices, and
  • diversifying the conceptual framework of medicine.”

Welche Methoden gehören zu CAM?

Obwohl es keine keine einheitliche Definition von CAM gibt, wird doch die Aufzählung des NCCM überlicherweise angewendet:

  • Whole Medical Systems: medical systems of theory and practice e.g. ayurveda, anthroposophic medicine, homeopathy, naturopathic medicine, traditional Chinese medicine
  • Mind-Body Medicine: minds capacity affects bodily functions e.g. meditation, imaging
  • Biologically Based Practices: use of natural substances e.g. herbs, vitamins
  • Manipulative and Body-Based Practices: chiropractic, osteopathy, massage
  • Energy Medicine:
    • Biofield Therapies: affect energy fields of the human body
    • Bioelectromagnetic based therapies: use of electromagnetic fields.